Fiestas de Otoño-Castañas

Fiestas de Otoño con la castaña como protagonista

Las tradiciones permanecen y unen
Carnes Moran

Somos un país de fiestas y tradiciones que alcanzan su máximo exponente en verano, pero el final de esta estación no quiere decir que se terminen los festejos.

Con la vendimia y sus fiestas nos despedimos del verano. Con la llegada del otoño, los campos se llenan de colores purpura, ocres, amarillos y rojizos. Da la sensación de que todo empieza a ralentizarse, incluso las personas parece que sentimos la necesidad de bajar nuestro ritmo. Pero nada se  para, simplemente, con la nueva estación, cambian los colores, los olores, los frutos y el tipo de festividades que celebramos. ¡Todo está vivo! y…las Fiestas de Otoño llegan.

Las modas pasan (Halloween) pero las tradiciones permanecen. El 1 de Noviembre celebramos en toda España el día de «Todos los Santos», rito en el que se honra a los seres queridos que han fallecido acudiendo a los cementerios con flores.

En casi todos los puntos de España se celebran fiestas de Otoño específicas de gran tradición, muchas de ellas relacionadas con las labores de recolección y los frutos de este momento. Manzanas, castañas y dulces típicos (huesitos de santo, buñuelos de viento, panellets…) adquieren todo el protagonismo como en:

SAMAIN, una tradición celta que se celebra en Galicia. Los celtas marcaban, con esta celebración el final de la época de la cosechas,  el inicio del “Año Nuevo Celta” y la entrada de una estación más oscura, por lo que se iluminaban calles y casa con velas para espantar a los espíritus. También las familias se reúnen alrededor del fuego y celebran el “Magosto”, asando castañas y contando historias.

LA CASTANYADA, tradición que en Cataluña se remonta al siglo XVIII y en la que las familias se reúnen para honrar a los  seres queridos fallecidos mientras se comían los frutos de otoño, castañas asadas y boniatos así como dulces (Panellets).

GASTAÑARRE EGUNA, una fiesta de Todos los Santos está unida a la Gastañarre Eguna (fiesta de la castaña asada). Las familias y amigos se reunen para una merienda-cena, en la que no pueden faltar los caracoles en salsa y de postre las castañas asadas.

DÍA DE LA CHAQUETÍA,  en la noche de Todos Los Santos, en Extremadura, salen al campo cargados de castañas, nueces, almendras, higos, membrillos, manzanas, dulces caseros y gachas para celebrar una merienda. Según la tradición los niños y jóvenes (el día anterior) llaman a las puertas de las casas de los vecinos y al canto de…”Tía, tía dame la chiquitía, que si no, no eres mi tía” piden los frutos otoñales que servirán para la merienda.

GACHAS PARA CERRAR LAS CERRADURAS, en La noche de todos los Santos en Begígan (Jaén), los vecinos salen a las calles con cazuelas llenas de gachas para tapar las cerraduras y así impedir que entren los malos espíritus.

NOCHI LOS DIJUNTOS, en Cantabria la celebración de la Noche de  Difuntos está ligada a los Conjuros (grandes Hogueras), el desfile de la Güeste (cortijo de almas en pena), Las Guajonas (vieja que con su único diente chupa la sangre a los niños), las Verrugonas (calabazas iluminadas) o las Magostas (degustación de castañas asadas y sidra)

REPRESENTACIÓN DE DON JUAN TENORIO, en Alcalá de Henares se representa esta obra de Zorrilla  en la noche de Todos los Santos y las castañeras ocupan las calles

EL AMAGOSTO DE LES NEÑES, tradición en Asturias  en la que se comen castañas asadas y se bebe sidra. Dos frutos de otoño unidos en una misma celebración.

RECOLECCIÓN DEL PERO, fiesta que se celebra en la Hiruela (Sierra Norte de Madrid) desde tiempo inmemorial. El pero es una variedad de manzana de exquisito sabor. En esta celebración se rinde homenaje a la cultura agrícola. Hay un mercado artesanal y se disfruta de la migas.

Las castañas, como hemos visto, son el fruto principal de la mayoría de las celebraciones y fiestas de otoño.  Además de las ya nombradas en Ávila, Zamora, Segovia, Sierra de Aracena, Alto Genil, La Alpujarra…son protagonistas.

En último lugar hemos dejado LA FIESTA DEL MAGOSTO en LEÓN (por aquello de que nuestras raíces están allí). El origen de esta tradición se pierde en los tiempos. Se hacen fogatas, los niños asan castañas y se baila alrededor intentando entrar en calor.

Está claro que las tradiciones permanecen y curiosamente, a pesar de las zonas tan distantes, tienen mucho en común. Como buenos «catacaldos» seguro que ya estáis planificando algún viaje para estos días que se aproximan para descubrir fiestas y celebraciones de otoño.

¿Has participado en alguna de estas fiestas de otoño? ¿En tu pueblo o ciudad cual es la costumbre o tradición en esta época?

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